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The 35 years' history of Kashima development

The footsteps of our predecessors
(Composition: by Kashima city history compilation committee)
Prologue
In 1960, Ibaraki prefecture framed, "The conception of overall development in Kashima open sea shore region-(a tentative plan)." It declared , "With a development of manufacturing as a start we will reform agriculture and other industries and will aim at balanced development."
In September of the following year, "The master plan of Kashima seaside industrial zone development," was made. Based on that, the way of manufacturing development in the southern part of Kashima district was concretely expressed and "The Kashima development project" was started. It was called the greatest project of the centuries.
In cooperation with a great number of landowners, a vast site of about 5-hectare was provided and the seaside industrial zone became a national project.
In this serial we introduce the course of Kashima development and make known the footsteps of our predecessors who contributed to the development.
The contents include the history of : "The Igiri Canal," "The reclamation of the Wani River," and "Takamatsu (Hikari) development." These are treated as the prehistory of Kashima development. We also state the establishment of the Kashima development association, purchasing sites, and the movement of residents, the development of the industrial zone, the readjustment of the harbor, the advance of enterprises, the development of substitute lots, anti-pollution measures, concerted neighborhood actions and the readjustment for life environment.
Moreover, we mention how those agricultural, fishery and commercial measures were developed and how they became achievements in Kashima development. These were expressed as a community development and were intended to do well both agriculturally and industrially. We also touch on how it had an influence on local industries by referring to changes in outputs, and so on.
Furthermore, we look back upon a state of living before Kashima development started by discussing the situation of migrant workers, who were referred to as, "Kashima women," in inashiki, a leading grain-producing region of the prefecture.

(Part 2)
In 1654, the manmade Tone river (Sumida River) was completed. It flowed into Edo Bay, coupled on to the Kinu River system and made a waterway which flowed out from the mouth of Choshi to the Pacific. However, every time it rained, heaps of mud made by a big eruption of Mt. Asama streamed into the basin and over three hundred surrounding villagers suffered from flood.
Konosuke Nakadate, born in Ohsyu Miharu (Miharu town, Fukushima prefecture), and worked at the Mito clan, planned to make the Igiri Canal for flood measures. He received permission from the Shogunate in 1866. However, at that time the construction didn`t materialize. In 1868, he obtained permission from the new government once more, assisted by Mito and Tsuchiura clans.
The construction started on the last day of February 1870. A 36-meter wide, 5,500 meter long, 2-3 meter deep, waterway was dug from the coast.
The construction work was set for a 50 day term, but they could only dig an opening waterway off the coast by April 7th. Laborers totaled 12,226 with construction cost over 2,500 ryo. Konosuke Nakadate accepted blame for the delay and resigned. From there the Mito clan handled the work for him. Laborers then totaled 129,196 and expenditures over 39,300 ryo.
Around the end of the following January the construction was transferred to the Minbu ministry. In September it became under the jurisdiction of the Tokyo prefecture. Around the end of July 1971 the construction was finally almost completed.
According to tradition, the waterway was not to be used as a drainage canal so people closed an overflow of the canal for fear of a back flow from the sea. However, in 1907 and 1911, the canal worked to discharge overflow water.
Now, the Igiri Canal has been dug up as a harbor and it is charged with a new mission.

(Part 3) The reclamation of the Wani River
The reclamation of the Wani River was stretched over former Kashima town, Takamatsu village, and Nakajima village. It was a delta bay, which had a 223 cho-bu (about 221.2 hectare) public surface of water. It expanded from Kitaura to Soto-Nasakaura and about 20 cho-bu (about 19.8 hectare) of Minyu plain (a sandbank).
The Tokugawa Shogunate planned to fill up this tide land, covered with reeds and cattails, and make it into a newly reclaimed rice field from Ansei era to 1868. However, it was difficult to fill the tide land with the modern day techniques of civil engineering, and the work was abandoned.
Years later, in order to survive an economic depression during the Taisho era and the early Showa period, the reclamation of the Wani River delta was started. It took 14 years (from 1919 to 1933) to complete the work and it was the record-breaking project for the district.
On August 3rd 1921, the long awaited establishment of an association for the Wani Rver redeployment of arable land was authorized. This made the work proceed more smoothly, but in the next year, a new per family basis expense paid system came into force. Because of this, a share of village expenses per family sharply increased over 5 times as much as in 1912, and the life of villagers became extremely tight.
Under such conditions, it was utterly impossible to raise money for the work from the members of the association. Everybody doubted the prospects of the project, but Yonosuke Baba from Shimohatagi, Nakajima village and Jun Noguchi from Yawara, Takamatsu village devoted themselves to the project.
They gave their whole fortune to keep the association, and worked on the wealthy and wealthy businesses to raise funds.
Their efforts were finally rewarded. They met Kenzo Suzuki of Hazamagumi, a civil engineer and owner of a construction firm. With his support the extremely painstaking task of the Wani River deployment was completed in August 31st 1933.

(Part 4) The cultivation of the Takamatsu land
After the war there was serious food shortage and many people staved off hunger with substitute foods like potatoes, wheat, or pumpkins.
Taking these situations into consideration, the government made a plan of opening up cultivated lands. It was especially made to reclaim military land of wartime and as part of the Agrarian reform, it aimed at increasing food yields.
The chosen land was ex-Konoike land for flying corps, which stretched over former Takamatsu village and former Ikisu village. The total number of immigrants for the cultivation from 1947 to 1958 were 91 families (65 families in Kashima, 26 families in Kamisu). The total number of people who enlarged their lands were 331 families (237 families in Kashima, 94 families in Kamisu). The government shared about 2 cho-bu land (about 9,920 square meter) per familiy with immigrants, and gave about 1 tan-bu (about 992 square meter) per family for people who were going to enlarge their own land.
In those days, people used a lamp for light and a hand pump to pump water out of a well. Therefore, they had a lot of trouble with cultivating land. The crops were sweet potatoes, pumpkins, wheat, or barley. The cultivation did not go smoothly at the beginning because of lack of fertilizers, but it became stable little by little.
In 1955, the Defense Agency proposed a plan for an anti-submarine air base, but the local people strongly objected to the plan and the Defense Agency abandoned it.
In April 1958, the base of the self-governing body, which was named Ohaza "Hikari," was made. Nevertheless, the Kashima development project was soon started. People moved to various places in donation of land by the "4 to 6 system." Consequently, a ceremony of dissolution for the cultivation of Takamatsu land was held in April 1968 and closed it`s 20 year history.
*The "4 to 6 system"
People offered 40 percent of their land for the development and kept 60 percent as their own land.

(Part 5) Kashima girls
Before the Kashima development project started, around 1955, people had been making their living by farming. But, it was not enough to make ends meet. So some of them did fishery or ran starch making factories to supplement their income. Others became migrant workers and headed for grain-leading regions around Azuma village, Inashiki district.
The area under tillage of this district was about 1 cho 4 tan (about 14,888 square meter) per family, and 90 percent of those were paddy fields. There was a thorough going single-crop paddy area and the life of that farming area depended on the rice crop.
In order to not be disturbed by a natural disaster, such as unusual weather, a fixed short period was demanded to plant or reap rice. In this case, they were fully prepared for the condition of hiring temporary workers.
Most of the migrant workers were women from the southern part of Kashima district, but there were also a few men. The women were called, "Kashima girls," or "Kashima women." Their frank and generous nature and hard working style was popular with the local people, and they generally had a good reputation. Some of them were taken as a wife or daughter-in-law.
They stayed with one family for a few days to a week and when they finished the work they moved to another family. They usually worked 2 or 3 weeks and received somewhere from 6 to 7 thousand yen.
Wages were between 400 yen to 450 yen per day, with full board accomodation. It was a lucrative business in those days, (1954), but the working day lasted 13 hours.
Those migrant workers gradually disappeared in the 1960`s due to the introduction of mechanized farming and progress of the Kashima development project.

(Part 6) The history of the Kashima development project and the reclamation of land
Jiro Iwakami, a prefecture governor, started the Kashima development project. It aimed at making good use of the vast land (sandy soil) of the Kashima open sea shore and the abundant water of Kasumigaura. In April 1959, it was called the "Tentative plan of Kashima development." The next April it was enlarged to "The plan of overall development of Kashima open seashore region (a tentative plan)." February of 1961, it was revised to "The plan of Kashima industrial zone development (a tentative plan)." In September of that year , it was embodied as "The plan of Kashima seaside industrial zone development." This was called, "The Master plan."
In 1962, an explanatory/promotional meeting was held with the local people. The feeling for development began to spread over them. The development zone was about 2 million hectare, and it aimed at the reclamation of about 3,330 hectare of an industrial housing complex which is in the center of the dug up harbor.
While the laws dealing with the development project was being prepared the acquisition of land and the construction of Kashima harbor was started. Then in 1967, the business of water for industrial use started to break ground for the former Japanese National Railway Kashima line. In December of that year, the business of the development of the industrial housing complex began. In April 1969, a part of Sumitomo metal Kashima iron works began operations. Then, the following April, many enterprises of a petrochemical complex started operations one after another. In this way, ten years after its conception, the greatest development project of the 20th century was finally completed.

(Part 7) The purchasing land for Kashima development
It was said that whether the Kashima development, which was named the greatest project of the centuries, would succeed or not depended on how to secure such a vast land.
Therefore, the community of Kashima sought for an original method of getting sites. All kinds of methods were examined in order to get as much land as possible from landowners with their consent.
Consequently, they organized an association for the development, which was a part of a clerical association, managed by the prefecture and the district, and purchased land for use as a plant site or a harbor. They also got 1,030 million Tsubo private land (about 3,400 square meter) by adopting a wide spread land adjustment.
That was called. "The Kashima system," or the "4 to 6 system." The landowners of 3 areas: Kashima and Hasaki town and Kamisu village ; offered 40 percent of their private land for development. They kept 60 percent as their own land.
The association of Kashima seaside industrial zone development established an organization and fulfilled every kind of preparation. Then they appointed a promoted committee and started purchasing land from February 1964.
Under the slogan, "To do well both farming and manufacturing," from Iwakami, a governor of the prefecture, members of the association for development worked day and night to visit landowners to ask for cooperation.
Things seemed to go smoothly at the beginning, however, compared to Hasaki town or Kamisu village, land purchasing in Kashima town did not attain its original goal. One of the reasons was because Takamatsu district, which was specified as an industrial site for Sumitimo metal, was a little too far away from the center of town. Besides that, there were other reasons, such as, issues concerning purchasing price, a burden of 40 percent contribution, an opposition movement, anxiety about living after contribution, pollution problems, and so on.
The land purchasing plan came to an end in 1984 as the association for the development dissolved. However, contrary to the original goal, it left somewhat of an after-effect as a result.

(Part 8) The construction of the harbor and the development of the industrial housing complex
The construction work of Kashima harbor started in May 1962. The aim was to build a test embankment and from the next November it was set in earnest.
Local people were skeptical about the completion of the harbor because it was such an unprecedented, large scaled work aimed at constructing a harbor for vessels on a dune.
The work continued by using all available products and knowledge of the most advanced construction technology. The staff of the Kashima harbor investigation office constantly studied the current and flow of sand and repeatedly did model tests.
However, the work for a breakwater, which would jut out into the Kashima open sea was much harder than they had expected. The work was also a fight against the strong waves of the Pacific Ocean brought on by typhoon weather.
In 1969, 7 years after the work had started, the Kashima harbor opened its port. It was an essential harbor and had a 2500 meter long, 600 meter wide central route, and a 300 meter wide north and south route. (The north route and the out port are still under preparation).
The development of the industrial housing complex also made steady progress.The large-quantity of sand,which was generated when they excavated the central route,was used to fill-up the south and north beaches and 70 percent of Gonoike.
In the shore excavation work, a big motor scraper, only used in the U.S. at the time, along with, a large scale belt conveyor, was introduced.
Then in 1967, 23 enterprises that would go into the industrial housing complex, including Sumitomo metal company, were decided. In this way, the construction of Kashima harbor and the development of the industrial housing complex, which were at the core of Kashima development, had been carried out.

(Part 9) Anti-pollution measures and a concerted neighborhood action
In November 1965, the Ministry of International Trade and Industry put, "The Kashima district comprehensive feasibiltiy study for industrial pollution," into effect. It was the first investigation that the nation took steps to grapple with environmental safeguard in Kashima district.
The next month, the Ministry of Health and Welfare announced a "pollution-free" estimate, which referred to the atmospheric measurement, and so on.
Ibaraki prefecture began doing a feasibility study around 1964 and the "Kashima area anti-pollution measure conference" started functioning in March 1966. Then the "Ibaraki prefecture anti-pollution ordinance" was promulgated and in April 1967, the pollution section was set up.
From 1968 onward, air pollution caused by indusrial dust came to the surface. The telemeter system, an observation apparatus, was introduced in 1970. Around that time, habitual observations for factory effluent at the final drain works had begun.
However, although those observation systems were established, large quantities of fish and shellfish died around the north breakwater of the Kashima Harbor on April 6th 1971. The cause of that mass-death was considered to be cyanogen, contained in factory effluent.
In 1970, "The Kashima district and anti-pollution measure conference" was inagurated by inhabitants who had been apprehensive about air pollution, and they actively worked on the prefecture and companies.
In 1971, the pollution section was established in Kashima town and it had done over a hundred of troubleshooting a year by 1974.
Many cases of pollution problems occurred at one time and mass media reported those cases. This made people feel insecure and they started an anti-pollution movement. In response to that movement, which was formed by an organization of inhabitants and a trade union, administration strengthened the observation system and companies took safety measures. With these steps, industrial pollution subsided.

(Part 10) Agricultural measures
The development of the Kashima seaside industrial zone brought great changes to the life of local residents and industry.
There were various problems with managing farming, such as, cut down on agricultural sites, an issue of substitute land, and problems with farming management. The future state of the increasing farm families who had been involved in other business much influenced local farmers.
The prefecture arranged a tentative plan for agricultural measures in 1962. The next year, they made guidelines for delivery of a subsidy for agricultural measures and serious work began from the year 1962.
Kashima town, in cooperation with the prefecture, continued work for agricultural measures like aid for agricultural facilities. In 5 years, 124 farming families received aid. The total business expenses for 5 years was one hundred and 36 million yen, half of which were subsidies from the town.
In addition, various other works to promote agricultural business suited to urbanization and industrialization were also in effect. For example, the training of core persons for agricultural business.
For the purpose of creating qualified managers, community made trainees visited more advanced prefectures where they stayed with outstanding farming families and acquired the agricultural techniques and essence of management. Trainees went to Chiba, Kanagawa, or Shizuoka prefecture to study about all kinds of garden products and stock raising.
That had a good effect. The economy of farming families was improved and in agricultural measure the town established its brand of production center.
The town also established a model farming family for improvement of agricultural business and completed many works for agricultural measures.
However, the number of farming families has been decreasing compared to the time before development started. This was due to the decreasing number of full-time farmers, successors, and the like. This has been havng a great effect on agricultural business year after year.
Now, Kashima town has made a plan for the advancement of agriculture and is tackling various works which aim at an ideal agriculture where leftover farming lots are used for agricultural production more effectively and where farmers apply themselves to production more lively.

(Part 11) The change of industry
Before Kashima development started, the city`s main industries were agriculture that centered around rice cultivation and sweet potatoes or vegetables (The main work of dairy farming was hog raising) and fishery. The fishery business at the Kashima open sea shore consisted of clams and sardines and at Kitaura lake front, gobies, shrimps, and crucian carps.
Businesses were mainly retailing daily necessities and shops were concentrated in the Kyucyu area.
In 1964, they began purchasing land. With the moving of the Sanhama area/Hikari area, the development of the agricultural housing complex and the progress of work for agricultural measure, farming changed to intensive garden products which centered around green peppers, watermelons and cucumbers. During that period, the number of full-time farmers decreased sharply (From 1,032 families in 1960 to 74 families in 1975), but farming income increased drastically (From 8 hundred 44 thousand yen in 1965 to 36 hundred 73 thousand yen in 1985).
Concerning fishery, the "Ibaraki prefecture fishing cultivation center" opened in 1994 and its aim has been at mass production of flatfishes, sea basses, clams, abalones, etc.
Concerning business, the retail and wholesale businesses have been improving satisfactorily. Around 1975, the town built up "Kashima - Kamisu commercial area" and it has become a commercial center of over 100 thousand people.

(Part 12) For the bright future of Kashima
Kashima, being a seaside industrial town, has held the view that, "Laying foundations for industry should be the first consideration of the city project." Therefore, it was weak in the point of view of a town for inhabitants.
The basic plan of welfare in Ibaraki prefecture (settled in 1991) advocated harmonizing the function of production and the function of living, on the condition that they would build up the strength of the function of production. With the development of a seaside base for material industry, (iron, steel, and oil,etc) a large scaled industrial zone has been completed and it seems that the original goal has been achieved.
On the other hand, the improvement of life environment has fallen behind.
With the basic concept of the realization for Kashima town to become more humanized (1991-2005), the town gives a theme for the project: "A comfortable town, an attractive town, a lively place, a 21st century Kashima." The most urgent task is to promote the town project and center on the idea "to create an attractive, comfortable town." People also expect a pleasant life from the town.
In the future, we will pursue various works in accordance with the basic plan (settled on every 5 years). Examples are city planning, fixing roads and parks, promoting commerce, enriching service, and building more recreation centers. Also, nature conservation, preservation of beautiful green and watersides, creating a more friendly liveley atmosphere, to adjust the environment, as well as to create an intellectually stimulating surrounding.
We also expect to create a mutual aid local welfare and build up a symbiotic, local community.
(The end)

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